Citrine is a yellow to gold to orange color of quartz. Its name comes from the French for lemon, citron
, though citron tends to be more golden than lemon yellow. Since quartz is an abundant mineral, the gem-quality specimens typically have very good luster and excellent clarity.
Citrine draws its distinctive color from traces of iron. Many commercial-grade citrines in the market have been produced by heat-treating amethyst, which will turn yellow at relatively low temperatures (around 470 degrees centigrade) and dark-yellow to red-brown at higher temperatures (around 1000 degrees centigrade). Virtually all heat-treated citrines have a reddish tint. Deposits of natural-colored citrine are found principally in Brazil and Madagascar, as well as in Burma, the USA and Namibia.
Citrine is callsed the "success stone" because it is thought to promote success, prosperity, and abundance, especially in business. The practice of placing a citrine in the cash register of a shop earned it the nickname "merchant's stone."